UFrantz Fanon waziwa kakhulu njengomunye wezinculabuchopho zomzabalazo wenkululeko eAfrika.

UFrantz Fanon waziwa kakhulu njengomunye wezinculabuchopho zomzabalazo wenkululeko eAfrika.

 

 




Frantz Fanon: 1925 – 1961

 

 

Wazalelwa esiqhingini sase Martinique ngo 1925. I Martinique yayibuswa ngaphansi kwengcindezelo yombuso waseFrance. Abantu abahlala khona kwakungabokudabuka eMartinique, kanye nabase Afrika ababelethwe ngaphansi kohlelo lokuthumba abantu base Afrika benziwe izigqila kanye nabokudabuka eNdiya ababelethelwe ukuzotshala umoba eMartinique ukuze uthunyelwe eFrance.

Ngenkathi kuqubuka impi yomhlaba ngo 1939 kuyta ku 1943, u Fanon owayeno 17 ubudala wangena embuthweni wamasosha aseFrance ayelwa nombuso wama Jalimane ngaphansi kwama Nazi. Ngenxa yesibindi ayenaso waklonyeliswa ngendondo ephezulu kakhulu. Kodwa okwamdumaza ukubona indlela amasosha aseAfrika amnyama ayebandlululwa ngayo. Emva kokuphela kwempi yomhlaba waya eFrance ukuyofundelaubudokotela bokulapha ngokwengqondo. Ngalesikhathi wabhala incwadi i Black Skin, White Masks. Lencwadi yayikhuluma ngobandlululo olubhekiswe kubantu abamnyama e France naseMartinique. Kulencwadi ukuthaza ukuthi abantu abacindezelwe abalwe nobandlululo ngoba luvimba imizamo yabo yokuthola inkululeko yabantu bonke. Uqhubeka athi ubandlululo lwenza abantu abamnyama bathathwe njengezinto ezingelutho abanganabuhlakani abangacabangi ngakho kumele luqedwe ubandlululo. Emzabalazweni wokuqedwa kobandlululo olubhekiswe kubantu abamnyama, i Black Skin, White Masks ithathwa njengenye yezincwadi ezibaluleke kakhulu. Ngonyaka ka 1953 waphothula izifundo zakhe zobudokotela wathatha ubuzwe base Algeria lapho asebenza esibhedlela sokwelapha ngokwengqondo. Efika kulesibhedlela washintsha indlela okwakusetshelwa ngayo. Lesibhedlela sasibophela iziguli ngamaketanga ezindongeni njengeziboshwa ejele. Waphakamisa ukuthi iziguli kumele ziphathwe njengabantu abanesithunzi futhi ngesizotha. Lendlela yokuphatha iziguli yenza ezinye zilulame.

Ngonyaka ka 1954 kwaqubuka impi yokulwela inkululeko e Algeria, u Fanon wabamba iqhaza lokulekelela amasosha ayelwela inkululeko yabantu baseAlgeria ababecindezelwe. Ngonyaka ka 1956 washiya ubudokotela base Algeria waya ekudingisweni eTunisia lapho asebenza njengodokotela wamasosha alwela inkululeko futhi aphinde abe intatheli yephephandaba lombutho owawulwela inkululeko.

Ngonyaka 1959 wabhala enye incwadi ethi, A Dying Colonialism. Kulencwadi uqopha umlando ngomzabalazo wokulwa nokucindezelwa amazwe asentshonalanga nokuthi abantu abakulomzabalazo kuningi abakufundayo ngezigameko nezinguquko abadlula kuzo. UFanon uthi lomzabalazo udinga umbutho wabantu abazosebenza ngokubambisana ngokubumbana nangokuhlanganyela ekulweni nobandlululo. Uphinde aqhakambise iqhaza elibanjwe abantu besimame ekugcineni amakhaya nokwenza isimo sempilo engcono esizweni sonkana. Ngawo unyaka ka 1959 uFanon wenziwa inxusa likahulumeni omusha waseAlgeria. Kulomsebenzi wayehlanganyela nabanye ohulumeni base Afrika
ababesanda kuthola inkululeko emazweni asentshonalanga. Wadumala ukubona ukuthi nakuba washintshwa umbuso ezandleni zabamhlophe basentshonalanga kodwa indlela yombuso ayishintshanga nakuba sekuphethe abantu baseAfrika. Lokhu kwakuvezwa ukucindezelwa kwabantu abampofi nokwehliswa kwesithunzi sabo.

Kwathi ngonyaka ka 1961 u Fanon wahlaselwa isifo somdlavuza. Ngalesikhathi waqala wabhala enye incwadi ethi, The Wretched of the Earth. Lencwadi ilandisa ngokulwa nemibuso yasentshonalanga nempumelelo yalemizabalazo kanye nokunikelwa kwayo ezandleni zogombela kwesabo. Lencwadi igqugquzela isidingo sokubuyela emzabalazweni ezoholwa abantu ukuze kuzuzwe inkululeko yabantu bonke. UFanon uphinde aphawule ngokubandlululwa kwabantu abamnyama nokuhlukaniswa kwezindawo zokuhlala ngokobuhlanga. Ukulwa nalezinto kungenzeka uma umzabalazo uholwa abantu abacindezelwe abangabahlali basemaplazini nasemijondolo.

Kulomzabalazo abantu bayahlaziya bakhe amacebo bebhekisisa ukuthi obani abangabahlobo futhi obani abayizitha. Okubhekisiswa kakhulu ukuthi kungakanani ukuzibophezela kwabantu kumzabalazo wenkululeko nezinqumo ezithathwayo zohlonzwe ngokwepolitiki kunokubheka indabuko yamalunga.

UFanon ucacisa ukuthi ababusi basentshonalanga sebebona ukuthi bayanqotshwa empini yokulwela inkululeko benza itulo nezivumelwano nabaholi abamnyama baseAfrika. Lezivumelwano zaziqinisekisa ukuthi noma ohulumeni beshintshwa kodwa indlela yobandlululo yokubusa ingashintshi.

UFanon uphawula ngokusebenza kwemibutho yenkululeko njengezithangami zezingxoxo ezivulekele kumuntu wonke kodwa okuthi emva kokuthola inkululeko konke lokho kushintshe bese ziphenduka izithangami zokucindezelwa kwabantu abampofu. Uma abantu bezwakalisa ukungagculiseki bakhunjuzwa ngemizabalazo edlule yokulwela inkululeko. Okusobala ukuthi ohulumeni base Afrika nakuba sekungabantu abangamaAfrika abayishintshi indlela yokubusa ngengcindezelo efana neyohulumeni basentshonalanga.

UFanon ubuye axwayise ngokubhekisisa izindlela abantu abazwakalisa ngayo ukungagculiseki kwabo. Ngenxa yokuxakwa usizi nokudukiswa ohulumeni bayaye bajikelane bodwa bahlaselane ngokobuhlanga noma ngokobuzwe bokudabuka kesinye isikhathi abesilisa bahlasele abesimame.

Yingakho uFanon eqinisa ukuthi abantu abazona iziwula bayakwazi ukubona uma kudlalwa ngabo. Ngaleyondlela bayaqhubeka nomzabalazo. Uthi kunesidingo sokuqhubeka nomzabalazo kuzekube wonke umuntu uthola inkululeko. Kulemizabalazo yamanje izinto ezibalulekile ukuthola izindlu umhlaba imisebenzi kanye nokunye okuqinisekisa isithunzi sabantu.

Ngonyaka ka 1961 uFanon wadlula emhlabeni. Umzimba wakhe wathunwa enkundleni lapho yayibambene khona kulwelwa inkululeko eAlgeria. Kuleminyaka engamashumi amahlanu imibono yakhe ngokwakhiwa kwesizwe esiqhakambisa ubuntu babantu bonke iyaqhubeka nokukhuthaza imizabalazo yenkululeko umhlaba wonke ikakhulukazi iAfrika. Ukugcizelela kukaFanon ekuhlonipheni ubuhlakani babantu abampofu nabacindezelwe negalelo labo emzabalazweni kusemqoka kakhulu. Lokhu kugqugquzela ukuzethemba kubantu abalwela inkululeko. Kubalulekile nokuziqhelelanisa nabantu abangahloniphi isithunzi nemizamo yabantu abampofu bezishaya abakhulumeli babo nabahlobo babo.

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